Petrykivka Decorative Painting (Folk Art)
Petrykivka: historical facts
There is a village in Dnipropetrovs'ka district with name Petrykivka. It is one of a few places, where folk arts are kept. Peter Kalnyshevsky founded Petrykyvka 230 years ago. It was the custom in that village: all women painted huts’ walls with floral colorful patterns. These designs were ornamented by special brushes that were made of cat's fur, as well as wrapped with soft cloth matches or just with fingers. Paints were diluted with milk and eggs and colors were chosen to match all the colors of nature - the brightest.
Hostesses organized some kind of contests in their pursuit to adorn house and make it more colorific than others.
Alexander Statev, rural school teacher, trying to save folk art, created a school. He took Tatiana Pata, one of hostesses, as a teacher. One of the students, Fedir Panko decided to commit himself to folk arts. Mostly thanks to his pains was created art union with name Pertykivka.
Since that time Pertykivka masters took part in paintings of different pavilions, shops and exhibitions in Kyiv and Moscow. At first sight there is nothing cardinally new, but it is mistaken opinion. During ornamenting one or another interiors, Petrykivka masters transferred very similar interior design for the new premises, and changed only scale so that it match the size of a room. In 1960 - 1970, the folk art completed the formation of decorative monumental painting.
Petrykivski peasants gradually began to stand out a group of semiprofessionals. They were not painted only interiors of houses, but also applied art painting on folk musical instruments, trunks, winnowing, sleds, and in the early twentieth century began to make drawings on paper.
When in Ukrainian folk art was approved the varnished painting, masters who were creating in the field of decorative graphics, decided to return to painting utensils made of wood, but that process looks a little different now. Shape of wooden dish machined on a lathe, but is no longer, as it once was, imitation earthenware products. Shadow figure of new dishes are similar to pottery typical to the south of Ukraine and the Poltava region with rounded and smooth lines. Petrykivka art painting with oil paints applied on well enough polished surface without using pre-laying background. There was used a little polish, which was mixed with paints. Thanks to that, they became transparent. A tree was easily shining through such paint. First dishes were ornamented in 1963.
Another specialty of petrykivskaya painting was a high graphical work, decorativeness of all parts of composition and restraint in range of colours (black, yellow and red). That was a new modification if traditional dishes paintings, based on the same modern. Quite beyond Ukrainian bounds became famous names of a few maters from Pertykivka.
Today in interior design, book graphic, art industry is widely used delicate, crisp graphic design which in the past developed as household items and decor mural. Petrykivsky beautiful flower bloomed on a porcelain dish, magical pattern wrapped silk cloth, precious gems lit up on the varnished surface boxes for souvenirs.
History of Petrykivsky ornament has its own technique, plastic language and a set of artistic images. Painting tradition passed down from one generation to another. Original, mostly floral ornament, as the years passed, more and more improved.
Present Petrykivka decorative painting, was characterized primarily as a vegetable, flower. It is based on a careful study of real forms of flora and creation based on these realities not existed in nature, fantastic colors (for example, "onion"). There are widely adopted motives of meadow (cornflower, Romany) and garden (roses, dahlias, asters) flowers, grapes, berries of arrow woods, strawberries. Also characteristic is the image of fern leaves, openwork feathery foliage and buds.
For painting on paper Petrykivka masters use egg tempera, and in the mural painting used - gouache, oil paints and egg tempera - on the ground, on a wooden surface is dominated mainly varnished painting, oil painting inflicted. The main plot of the traditional composition are: "bouquet", "frieze", "twig", decorative panels, which often resembles a carpet manufactory about XIX century. Types of these compositions are often used in construction, when applied to the mural as a component of architectural decoration of interiors.
How is Petrykivka painting traditionally taught and passed down?
Traditionally, Petrykivka painting was taught and passed down through families and communities. Mothers and grandmothers would teach their daughters and granddaughters, and neighbors would often gather together to share their skills and knowledge.
In addition to this informal training, there were also professional teachers and artists who passed on the techniques and traditions of Petrykivka painting. They would often hold classes or workshops, and some even founded art schools dedicated to this folk art form.
Today, Petrykivka painting is still taught in many of the same ways, with family members and community members passing on their skills to the next generation. However, there are also many more formal opportunities available, such as art schools, workshops, and online tutorials.
Despite the increasing availability of modern teaching methods, the traditional methods of passing down Petrykivka painting remain an important part of this art form's cultural heritage.
Are there any specific symbols or motifs used in Petrykivka painting?
Yes, there are many specific symbols and motifs used in Petrykivka painting. One of the most common motifs is the flower, which is often depicted in a stylized and abstract form. Other popular motifs include birds, animals, and geometric shapes.
In addition to these individual motifs, Petrykivka painting is known for its use of bright, contrasting colors, often applied in layers to create depth and texture. Traditional Petrykivka paintings also often feature a central image surrounded by a border of smaller decorative elements.
Many of the motifs and symbols used in Petrykivka painting are believed to have deep cultural and spiritual meanings. For example, the flower is often seen as a symbol of spring and rebirth, while birds are associated with freedom and the soul. The specific meanings of different motifs may vary depending on the artist or the region, but they all contribute to the rich cultural heritage of Petrykivka painting.
What are some common objects that are decorated with Petrykivka painting?
Petrykivka painting is traditionally applied to a wide variety of objects, both functional and decorative. Some of the most common objects that are decorated with Petrykivka painting include wooden spoons, plates, bowls, boxes, and furniture.
In addition to these traditional objects, Petrykivka painting has also been applied to clothing, jewelry, and even musical instruments. The brightly colored, intricate designs of Petrykivka painting make it a popular choice for decorating objects that are meant to be displayed or worn.
One unique feature of Petrykivka painting is that it is often applied to three-dimensional objects, creating a sense of depth and texture that is not possible on a flat surface. For example, wooden spoons may be carved with intricate designs and then painted with layers of color and detail, creating a beautiful and functional object that is also a work of art.
Overall, Petrykivka painting is a versatile and adaptable art form that can be applied to a wide range of objects, bringing beauty and color to everyday items and preserving a rich cultural heritage for generations to come.
Is Petrykivka painting recognized as a cultural heritage by any organizations or governments?
Yes, Petrykivka decorative painting has been recognized as a cultural heritage by various organizations and governments. In 2013, it was inscribed on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO. This recognition helped to raise awareness and appreciation for this unique Ukrainian folk art form on a global scale. Additionally, the Ukrainian government has also recognized Petrykivka painting as an important cultural heritage and has taken steps to preserve and promote it. The National Museum of Ukrainian Decorative Folk Art in Kyiv has a significant collection of Petrykivka paintings, and there are also dedicated museums and centers in Petrykivka and other cities where visitors can learn about the history and techniques of this art form.
Where can I buy authentic Petrykivka painted items?
If you're interested in purchasing authentic Petrykivka painted items, there are several options available. One option is to visit Petrykivka itself, a small town in central Ukraine that is famous for its Petrykivka artists. There, you can visit local artists and purchase their works directly. Another option is to visit markets and fairs in Ukraine that specialize in Ukrainian folk art and crafts, as Petrykivka paintings are often sold at these events.
For those who cannot travel to Ukraine, there are also online marketplaces and shops that sell Petrykivka painted items. It's important to ensure that you are purchasing authentic items, as there are unfortunately some counterfeit products on the market. Look for reputable sellers and do some research on the artist or seller to ensure their authenticity. Additionally, some museums and cultural institutions in Ukraine and around the world sell Petrykivka items in their gift shops, which can be a great way to support the preservation and promotion of this unique Ukrainian folk art form.